In the matrix below, describe the historical development, key contributors, and principle issues of pragmatism, analytic philosophy, and the Philosophy of Mind.
|Pragmatism||Analytic Philosophy||Philosophy of Mind|
|Historical Development||Pragmatism developed out of the discussions of Peirce and James in a club at Cambridge, Massachusetts in the 1870’s. Dewey also added to the development of pragmatism by adapting it to his understanding of education and social reform.||The analytical tradition, as it was originally formulated, was established through Russell applying his mathematical analytical method to philosophy. Frege brought this analytical philosophy to reality by creating a new set of logical symbols that excluded the ambiguity of ordinary language. Wittgenstein then brought the analytical tradition to fruition by proposing that facts can be broken down to their most fundamental structures, atoms.||N/A|
|Key Contributors||The contributors to Pragmatism (American pragmatism) are C.S. Peirce, William James, and John Dewey. Peirce actually founded pragmatism as we know it in the 1870’s in a club in Massachusetts. James is the name that is most associated with pragmatism though. Dewey formed a brand of pragmatism called instrumentalism that the school systems use to this day.||Bertrand Russell was concerned with the very basis of mathematics. He developed the philosophy of logicism, in which, all mathematics can be determined through concepts of logic. Gottlob Frege tried to graft the logicism of mathematics into philosophy. Gilbert Ryle used philosophical analysis to resolve many hard philosophical problems, citing that “linguistic confusion” was the culprit. Ludwig Wittgenstein was a student of Russell’s. He strived to resolve all complex propositions to their simplest proposition. He also tried to understand the relationship between reality, language and the mind. Moritz Schlick formed a group called the Vienna Circle, which held logical positivism as their central theme. Quine had a view called representationalism which said that beliefs about reality represent reality.||Descartes had a dualistic belief that the mind had a physical and a non-physical apparatus. Ryle believed that only a physical mind existed.|
|Principle Issues||Pragmatism basically postulates that there are no fixed truths; that the purpose and even existence of a particular object are determined by its practicality and usefulness. Peirce held that “truth” as we know it is only the most popular opinion. James stated that whatever works for an individual is true. For Dewey pragmatism included both the individual item and its usefulness in a particular context.||Today analytical philosophy is categorized more as clarifying language than a philosophical practice. But for a long time many people held that the analytical tradition is the only real way to understand the universe. Analysis is in short breaking a complex equation, statement, truth, etc… down to its basic statements to better understand the equation, etc… more clearly. The Vienna Circle held that only things that can be proven empirically fit the “verifiability criterion of meaning”. Representationalist hold that our beliefs, which line up with reality, are reality. Anti-Representationalist will admit to no such thing. In their interpretation there is no real “reality” in which to measure our beliefs.||One of the main topics of Philosophy of the Mind is whether human beings exist with a physical and non-physical mind, both, or neither. Behavioralism is the belief that beliefs are not non-physical entities, but simply thing-words we use to describe behavior. Identity Theory holds that all cognitive functions exist in specific physical neural processes. Functionalist believe that cognitive functions exist in physical neural processes in general, but are not willing to catalogue specific beliefs with specific neural processes.|
Bruder, K., & Moore, B. N. (2002). Philosophy: The power of ideas (6th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.