1. Explain and give an example for each of the following types of variables:
1. Equal-Interval: Variables in which there are equal distances between each value. An example of equal-interval variables would be S.A.T. scores.
1. Rank-Order: Variables in which the values represent relative standing to other values. An example of rank-order variables would be the order in which a set of runners finished a race.
1. Nominal: Variables in which scores represent categories or names rather than numerical values. An example of nominal variables would be what each student at a high school chose for lunch one day.
1. Ratio Scale: A ratio scale constitutes a set of equal-interval variables with the addition of an absolute zero point. An example would be the number of times that a set of student used the rest room during a class.
1. Continuous: A continuous variable, in contrast to a discrete variable, is a variable in which the value can constitute an infinite number of values. An example would be the time that it would take to run one mile (i.e. 1.24 minutes).
2. Following are the speeds of 40 cars clocked by radar on a particular road in a 35-mph zone on a particular afternoon:
1. Describe the general shape of the distribution: The distribution is unimodal because there is only one major peak. The distribution is more symmetrical than skewed, but does favor a center-right peak. Also, as to kurtosis the distribution it is heavy-tailed.
3. Give an example of something having these distribution shapes:
1. Bimodal: The age of all individuals at a university. The instructors would probably on average be much older than the students, with fewer in the middle.
1. Approximately Rectangular: The age at which most people receive their driver’s license in the state of Texas. Since the legal age is 16 most people will get their driver’s license around that age.
1. Positively Skewed: Race times for the 40-yard dash in high school were positively skewed. Most people finished at about the same time, but there were those that were quite a bit slower. On a graph this would cause a tail on the right of the graph.
4. Find an example in a newspaper or magazine of a graph that misleads by failing to use equal interval sizes or by exaggerating proportions.

The second graph is misleading when it comes to the data, because it does not accurately represent “Thing 3”. The last variable looks like it might be only twice the amount of variable 2 when in fact the score is quite a bit more.