The Five Factory Model in Detail

Question:

Describe the five factor model in detail. Compare and contrast extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in detail.

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Response:

The five-factor model of personality entails the dimension of openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (Deckers, 2005). Each dimension of personality includes a bi-polar spectrum of descriptors ranging from low to high. Openness includes from low to high shallow, simple unintelligent—artistic, clever, curious; conscientiousness includes careless, disorderly, forgetful—cautious, deliberate, dependable; extraversion includes quiet, reserved, shy—active, assertive, dominant; agreeableness includes cold, cruel, unfriendly—affectionate, cooperative, friendly; and neuroticism includes calm, contented, unemotional—anxious, emotional, moody. Extraversion and neuroticism are the most research dimensions, presumably because these two dimensions are most implicated in psychological disorders. The text seemed to be under the impression that being outgoing and not worrying were the cure-alls for anxiety disorders and such. I am not so sure. Sometimes intrinsic motivations, such as the motivation to self-actualize, can become an incentive to moderate anxiety; rather than the advent of extraversion and moderation of neuroticism. The text implicated a statement from a baseball player who loved to play until he started getting paid. In this case, extrinsic motivation trumped intrinsic motivation, creating a net negative effect. Maybe anxiety is better moderated as a matter of intrinsic motivation, wrapped up in the dimensions of conscientiousness, openness, and agreeableness, rather than the more outward expression of extraversion and neuroticism. But how to intrinsically motivate someone to moderate anxiety? As with the disciplining of my children, it is not so important that I make then do what I want. Any parent who has ever tried to make a child do something they don’t want to do will know what I am talking about. No, it is more important to put in place a set of consequences, both positive and negative, and let the child make the decision for themselves…sticks and carrots, as it were. There are consequences for the non-moderation of anxiety. By making those consequences real the more powerful intrinsic motivations can be awakened to combat anxiety. Thoughts…

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References

Deckers, L. (2005). Motivation: Biological, psychological, and environmental, Second Edition. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. 

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