Psychoanalytical Structuralism Compared to Jamesian Functionalism

The great insight of psychological analysis, including Freud’s psychoanalysis, Adler’s individual psychology, Jung’s analytical psychology, and James’s “stream of thought” analogy; is that consciousness can be explained. However, there exists a gulf between the Jamesian understanding of consciousness and the traditional psychoanalytical approach, epitomized by the contrast between functionalism and structuralism, respectively. Whereas structuralism has... Continue Reading →

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Women in Psychology (Mary Whiton Calkins)

History without context is little more than the recitation of unrelated events, and history without specific events is little more than a fanciful narrative; therefore, history exists as an interrelated duality between specific events and context. It is through the eyeglass of this apparent duality that the great accomplishments of science come firmly into view... Continue Reading →

Psychology in Historical Perspective: Early Developments

Charles Darwin (1872) once postulated that “…natural selection acts only by taking advantage of slight successive variations…” (p. 156). It is through these slight, successive variations, Darwin hypothesized, that some species evolve into other species and some species become extinct over time. In the same way, beginning with Pavlov’s Conditioned Reflexes and John Watson’s Behaviorist Manifesto, behaviorism has... Continue Reading →

The Physical Brain and the Incorporeal Mind

Where nature and nurture intersect to create human behavior is as evasive a locality as where the physical brain and metaphysical consciousness intersect to create human thought, if such an intersection exists at all. The discussion of just such an intersection has occupied much of philosophy past, psychology past, and present, and anticipates the biopsychology... Continue Reading →

Sensation, Perception, and Attention

Sensation and perception are very active processes. A sensation is an act of translation, converting external stimuli into an internal version or representation (Kowalski & Westen, 2005). People also orient themselves to stimuli to capture sights, sounds and smells that are relevant to them. Like sensation, perception is an active process: It organizes and interprets sensations.... Continue Reading →

Life Span Development and Personality

Freud and unconscious conflict, Pavlov and learning, Darwin and natural selection; all of these great men of science developed theories to explain the world around us and within us. They did not, however, develop these theories outside the context of their surroundings, their upbringing, or their own personalities. President-elect Barack Obama will soon become the... Continue Reading →

Abnormal Psychology and Therapy

The diagnosis, treatment, and eventual recovery from psychological disorders are the main focuses of psychology, in general. Even though psychology has branched off, as of late, into positive psychology and the humanistic perspectives, the field is heavily rooted in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. Furthermore, fundamental to the understanding of psychological disorders is... Continue Reading →

Social Influences on Behavior

Social cognition is the process through which we categorize and understand the world around us and the social interactions that link us to that world. There exists within the psychological understanding of social cognition three models for understanding social interaction: networks of association, schemas, and concepts (Kowalski & Westen, 2005). The manner that human behavior... Continue Reading →

Foundations of Psychology Paper

Psychology has taken many turns over time, from its beginnings in philosophy to the current study of biopsychology. Psychology has been, at its worst, an investigation of the murky waters of mysticism and, at its best, the study of how the physical brain interacts with the metaphysical mind. As currently defined, psychology is, “…the scientific... Continue Reading →

Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle Matrix

Fill in the matrix below, denoting each philosopher’s view concerning the topics listed. Write NA if there is no record in the textbook of the philosopher’s view on the specific topic. Then, using the information you inserted into the matrix as a guide, write a 350-700 word response describing how Socrates’, Plato’s, and Aristotle’s philosophies... Continue Reading →

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