Moral Development During Childhood

How does moral development change for developing individuals? Does it change for everyone? Why or why not? Why do some people fail to develop basic moral values? Basic moral development can be impeded through early childhood exposure to neglect and abuse. I believe that the textbook labeled those people as suffer from reactive attachment disorder.... Continue Reading →

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Sensation, Perception, and Attention

Sensation and perception are very active processes. A sensation is an act of translation, converting external stimuli into an internal version or representation (Kowalski & Westen, 2005). People also orient themselves to stimuli to capture sights, sounds and smells that are relevant to them. Like sensation, perception is an active process: It organizes and interprets sensations.... Continue Reading →

Modern Rites of Passage and Adolescence

Since most Americans do not practice rites of passage, how do we know when adolescence ends and adulthood begins? What psychological features do we expect to see in adolescents? What psychological features do we expect to see in adults? It seems like today the appearance of adulthood is at a younger and younger age but... Continue Reading →

Life Span Development and Personality

Freud and unconscious conflict, Pavlov and learning, Darwin and natural selection; all of these great men of science developed theories to explain the world around us and within us. They did not, however, develop these theories outside the context of their surroundings, their upbringing, or their own personalities. President-elect Barack Obama will soon become the... Continue Reading →

Thinking in the Absence of Language

Do our thoughts require expression in the form of language? Is it possible to think in the absence of language, and if so, how are our thoughts represented? Thought can operate outside the realm of language. A more important observation though is that language cannot operate outside the realm of thought. So language has no... Continue Reading →

What is Negative Reinforcement?

What is negative reinforcement and give examples? In my own words, negative reinforcement is when something is taken away and that encourages a certain behavior. This mechanism of conditioning works differently than punishment because both kinds of punishment involve decreasing the chance of a future behavior. I had to read those sections a few times... Continue Reading →

Abnormal Psychology and Therapy

The diagnosis, treatment, and eventual recovery from psychological disorders are the main focuses of psychology, in general. Even though psychology has branched off, as of late, into positive psychology and the humanistic perspectives, the field is heavily rooted in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. Furthermore, fundamental to the understanding of psychological disorders is... Continue Reading →

Differences and Similarities Between Operant and Classical Conditioning

How do classical conditioning procedures differ from operant conditioning procedures? How are they similar? In your opinion, which learning process is more effective? Why? You know, after reading the chapter I would have to say that operant conditioning is more effective. Classical conditioning only has one mechanism, association, to affect learning; however, operant conditioning has... Continue Reading →

Social Influences on Behavior

Social cognition is the process through which we categorize and understand the world around us and the social interactions that link us to that world. There exists within the psychological understanding of social cognition three models for understanding social interaction: networks of association, schemas, and concepts (Kowalski & Westen, 2005). The manner that human behavior... Continue Reading →

Psychology as a Scientific Discipline

How does psychology as a scientific discipline differ from the casual observations we make about the world in everyday life? What are the similarities? Psychology, as a scientific discipline, is built upon testable, empirical data which has been obtained through the use of the scientific method. Now, of course, this does not apply to all... Continue Reading →

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