Similarities Between Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning

What are the similarities between classical conditioning, as described by John B. Watson, and operant conditioning, as defined by B.F. Skinner? What are the differences? Both of these approaches to understanding and manipulating behavior are predicated on the association of previously unassociated stimuli and responses. Which came first…the chicken or the egg? Now, this is... Continue Reading →

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Psychology in Historical Perspective: Early Developments

Charles Darwin (1872) once postulated that “…natural selection acts only by taking advantage of slight successive variations…” (p. 156). It is through these slight, successive variations, Darwin hypothesized, that some species evolve into other species and some species become extinct over time. In the same way, beginning with Pavlov’s Conditioned Reflexes and John Watson’s Behaviorist Manifesto, behaviorism has... Continue Reading →

Differences and Similarities Between Operant and Classical Conditioning

How do classical conditioning procedures differ from operant conditioning procedures? How are they similar? In your opinion, which learning process is more effective? Why? You know, after reading the chapter I would have to say that operant conditioning is more effective. Classical conditioning only has one mechanism, association, to affect learning; however, operant conditioning has... Continue Reading →

Perspectives of Substance Abuse

With which viewpoint or viewpoints do you agree most? Why? Provide specific examples of causal factors and treatments outlined by the respective theoretical viewpoints. I have always been a fan of the behaviorist perspective on psychological disorders, and substance-related disorders are no different. I do agree with Nevid and Rathus (2005) when they say that... Continue Reading →

Models of Abnormality

Psychologists use several different models to explain abnormal behavior. These different models have created shifts in values and beliefs as well as improvements in clinical research. These differences in ideas mean that the different models are sometimes in conflict with one another. People who follow one model often point out where another model fails in... Continue Reading →

Diagnosis and Treatment of Autism and Mental Retardation

Respond to the following: List the primary features of autism.The primary features of autism are lack of responsiveness, language and communication problems (echolalia, pronominal reversal), limited imaginative play, very repetitive and rigid behavior, preservation of sameness, self-stimulatory behaviors, and self-injurious behavior (Nevid & Rathus, 2005)Which explanation for autism is no longer considered valid and lacks... Continue Reading →

Personality Theory Presentation

Slide 1 Behaviorism and social-learning theory both seek to describe human behavior in the context of social learning and culture. These viewpoints exclude any affect genetic information plays in behavior, but rather only consider observable behavior shaped by our environment. Slide 2 In order to put things in perspective it is important to understand that... Continue Reading →

Case Study on Stress and Coping

Case Study #1 Jennifer is a 29-year-old administrative assistant married to Antonio, an Italian engineer, whom Jennifer met four years earlier while on a business trip for her marketing company. The couple now lives in Nebraska, where Antonio works for the county’s transportation department and Jennifer commutes an hour each way to her marketing office.... Continue Reading →

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